This book analyses the cultural factors that influence the characteristics, behaviour and thinking of adult learners from the perspective of psychology. It emphasizes the collective orientation of African cultures and the view of the self vis- à-vis interdependent relationships within a community.

The first International Conference on Learning Cities, which was co-organised by UNESCO, the Ministry of Education of China and Beijing Municipal Government, took place from 21–23 October, 2013 in Beijing. The aim of this conference was to mobilize cities to promote lifelong learning for all as a vector of equality and social justice, social cohesion and sustainable prosperity.