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Friendship’s Adult Literacy Programme

  • Date published:
    2 November 2021


Programme Key Information

Programme Title Friendship’s Adult Literacy Programme
Implementing Organization Friendship Bangladesh
Language of Instruction Bangla
Programme Partners Friendship Luxembourg, and ERIKS Development Partner
Funding Friendship Luxembourg, ERIKS Development Partner and Secours Islamique France
Annual Programme Costs US$ 200,000
Date of Inception October 2007

Country Context and Background

In 2000, Bangladesh adopted the framework for action to fulfil the UN’s Education for All (EFA) commitments by 2015, as one of the 164 countries participating in the World Education Forum in Dakar (Senegal). However, despite the efforts of governments, civil society organizations and international communities, the EFA goals were not achieved (UNESCO, 2015). The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS, 2020) reported that, by 2019, the literacy rate for the Bangladeshi population of 15 years and older was 74.7 per cent, and that approximately 30 million adults had low basic literacy skills, while the participation rate in tertiary education was only 24 per cent (UIS, 2020).

Poverty also continues to be highly prevalent in the country, especially in the islands of the Brahmaputra and Jamuna Rivers, also known as Chars. The Power and Participation Research Centre (2016) found that, in 2015, the average monthly income in Bangladesh was BDT 31,883 (around US$ 90). Additionally, according to Shihab and Khan (2015), early age marriage is very common in Chars families, and this eventually contributes to a repeating cycle of intergenerational poverty and educational disadvantage.

Bangladesh is known as the land of rivers; Chars are midstream islands created from river sediment that is mostly used for settlement and cultivation (Picture 1.).The Chars and coastal areas are not only geographically remote and isolated but also subject to a high frequency of natural disasters (Rural Development and Co-operative Division, n.d.). This is problematic for the local economy, which largely depends on agriculture, fishing and livestock rearing. There is also a severe lack of education, healthcare, extension support services and necessary infrastructure to cope with emerging social issues and disasters such as flood and land erosion, and so residents often live in vulnerable, disadvantaged situations.

Picture 1. One of the typical Chars of the region

According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2019), over the past decade around 700,000 Bangladeshis were displaced by natural disasters. Overall, as a result of the various impacts of climate change, the estimated number of displaced Bangladeshis could reach 13.3 million by 2050, making the climate crisis the country’s number one driver of internal migration (World Bank, 2018).

Low literacy levels and a lack of quality education have long been considered the most significant contributing factors to poverty, unemployment, under-development and social isolation in Bangladesh. Over the past decades, the Bangladesh government and various NGOs have introduced several educational endeavours such as the provision of compulsory primary education, school meal programmes, a midday meal for primary school children, the upgrading of primary level from grade 5 to 8, village study circles, and portable libraries. These strategies have targeted the promotion of accessibility to basic education for increasing literacy levels, alleviating poverty and creating social transformation. In this context, Friendship Bangladesh has developed an initiative to provide people from the Chars with educational opportunities and functional literacy skills, to empower people to create a sustainable livelihood for their communities and future generations.

Picture 2. Aerial photo of a typical Char (Shihab and Khan, 2015)

Programme Overview

Friendship is a Special Purpose Organisation (SPO), and is registered as an NGO in Bangladesh. It was founded in 2002 by Runa Khan, a Bangladeshi actress, with the mission of providing healthcare services to isolated and marginalized communities – particularly Chars residents – by using hospital ships that allow mobility along the rivers. In order to create a lasting impact, Friendship also decided to tackle issues that are closely related to people’s everyday lives. Over the past 17 years, in close collaboration with individuals, communities, civil society organizations and the government, Friendship has developed and implemented programmes with several components: saving lives, climate action, poverty alleviation, and empowerment through six service focuses: health, education, inclusive citizenship, climate change adaptation and disaster management, cultural preservation, and sustainable economic development. The Sustainable Economic Development Programme and the Adult Education Programme started in 2005 and 2007 respectively, to support farmers and fishers and their families.

At Friendship, the skills development programmes are built on a foundation of increased literacy skills. The education component of Friendship targets adults, school children and out-of-school adolescents through programmes related to primary education, secondary education and adult education. Friendship implements the same syllabus that government schools use but also conducts several additional curricular and co-curricular activities to enhance learners’ ethical values, moral codes and interpersonal behaviour. Moreover, unlike the government, Friendship runs satellite schools and its recruitment requirements also differ – these include being part of the local community and holding a lower qualification level (Grade 10 compared with graduate level in the government case).

Friendship’s work on education started in 2006 with an initiative called the Friendship Primary Education Programme. Primary education is from pre-primary grade to Grade 5; secondary education from Grade 6 to Grade 10; and higher secondary from Grade 11 to 12. By December 2018, there were 4,654 students in 86 Friendship Schools (18 primary schools, 61 single-grade satellite primary schools, and seven secondary schools). Under a restructuring programme, there are now (as of January 2021) 4,341 students in 23 primary schools, 20 single-graded satellite primary schools and 16 secondary schools. In essence, several single-grade satellite primary schools were closed, and 14 new primary and secondary schools have been established.

In 2007, Friendship introduced the Adult Literacy Programme (ALP), which is the focus of this case study, to address the educational needs of Chars youth and adults with low literacy skills. A needs assessment was conducted before the implementation of the Friendship Primary Education Programme (FPEP) to identify the literacy rates of the adults in the project areas. According to data collected by the local government office, only 10 per cent of these adults had sufficient literacy skills, in terms of being able to read, write and do everyday calculations independently. Until December 2018, there were 1,460 adult learners enrolled in 74 Adult Learning Centres. After 2018, the programme was restructured based on the needs and demands of the community. Several single-grade satellite primary schools, some of which also worked as Adult Literacy Centres, were shut down. Thus, by 2020 there were 49 Adult Literacy Centres serving 980 adult learners.

Aims and objectives

The overall goal of Friendship’s Adult Literacy Programme is to create equal opportunities for people from socially and economically marginalized communities in Bangladesh so they can live with dignity and hope.

The programme pursues this goal through the following objectives:

  • Enhance the literacy levels of underserved groups by providing basic literacy and numeracy courses;
  • Raise awareness of citizenship rights, social rights, the legal system and access to legal support;
  • Enhance learners’ knowledge and skills by providing them with vocational training and employment opportunities, in the pursuit of economic self-sufficiency

Target Groups

In northern Bangladesh, Friendship concentrates its work in 83 Chars in the districts of Kurigram and Gaibandha. In southern Bangladesh, it focused on the Patuakhali and Satkhira districts until 2019. The Adult Literacy Programme operates in 49 centres located in 49 of the 83 Chars; it focuses on adults aged 16 to 45 who have literacy needs or no formal schooling. Priority is given to adults who have not been enrolled in any other literacy programmes. Women aged 20 to 35, many of whom are married, are the largest group of learners (85 percent) (see Picture 3).

Picture 3. An adult literacy class of the programme

Programme Implementation

The Adult Literacy Programme is a crucial component of Friendship’s education services. It takes place over an eight month period, and learners engage in approximately 384 hours of learning (two-hour sessions for six days per week). Literacy classes are usually held either at the nearest available Adult Literacy Centre or at a suitable location for both teachers and learners, typically close to the learners’ houses. There are 20 learners on average in each class.

The ALP covers reading, writing and calculating skills equivalent to Grades 1-3 of formal schooling. Therefore, adult literacy courses are divided into three stages of varying duration that take eight months in total. Each phase covers one grade and has its own learning content and target competency levels (see Table 1). Upon completion of the programme, graduates voluntarily participate in income-generating activities (IGA) run by the government, Friendship, or other organizations in the area. Some of these activities include poultry rearing, cattle rearing and tailoring.

Table 1. Categories and skills by grades (Friendship, n.d.a.)
Picture 4. A teacher at an Adult Literacy Centre
Picture 5. Learning in progress

Curriculum and Teaching Materials

The Adult Literacy Programme follows a curriculum developed by NGO Friends in Village Development Bangladesh (FIVDB). Besides the specialized sessions, Friendship also offers a few co-curricular and extra-curricular activities in the ALP, as in Friendship Primary Schools. As explained below, these activities include inculcation of a code of ethics, the Clean School-Clean Home component, and occasional health check-ups. Furthermore, the FIVDB has developed three textbooks for each grade level (1, 2 and 3) for the ALP curriculum. In total, there are nine textbooks on reading, writing and mathematics (refer to Pictures 6, 7 and 8 for sample textbooks).

Picture 6. Sample of a Grade 1 textbook
Picture 7. Sample of a Grade 2 textbook
Picture 8. Sample of a Grade 3 textbook

Code of Ethics

The code of ethics is a core component of the ALP curriculum, and aims to foster the internalization of human values. Friendship schools and the ALP choose one out of 12 values to work on and practise each month. The values are: compassion, confidence, rights, empathy, honesty, patience, justice, tolerance, non-violence, dignity, humility and commitment. Throughout the month, special sessions on the code of ethics are organized, along with regular classes, in which students share their reflections and stories. For instance, when teaching the value of dignity, discussions are held on the meaning of this value and its application in learners’ everyday lives, including examples of their own experiences.

Clean School-Clean Home

Following the concept of Clean School-Clean Home practised at Friendship schools, the ‘Clean Home-Clean Environment’ programme was initiated at the ALP in 2018. Learners clean their class premises and adjoining toilets. Learners are also encouraged to clean their home and its surroundings. When paralegals of the Inclusive Citizenship Programme visit learners’ houses to make them aware of their rights and social issues (e.g. on the subject of early marriages), they also include clean environment issues during their discussions.

Health Check-ups

Due to the geography and climate of Bangladesh, the construction of hospitals is not always possible and boats have become an alternative method of healthcare provision. Nearby floating hospitals assign doctors to Friendship’s programmes, prioritizing its learners’ physical and dental check-ups, as well as eye and ear examinations. If psychosocial services are needed, learners are transferred to nearby floating hospitals that provide this type of assistance.

Sustainable Economic Development Programme

As previously mentioned, once learners have completed the ALP, they are encouraged to learn specific trades or crafts, such as weaving, tailoring (see Picture 9), embroidery, and dyeing and printing fabrics (see Picture 10), through the Sustainable Economic Development Programme. The duration of each course varies depending on the complexity of the skills needed; for instance, weaving lasts six months, tailoring three months, and machine embroidery six months. The programme has a few weaving centres currently run by a separate institution called NODI1 . Graduates who are interested in the programme choose a centre according to its convenience.

The vocational skills acquired enable adult learners, primarily women, to find employment or get involved in micro-enterprise initiatives and contribute to their household’s income. Learners who successfully complete the training programme are provided with logistics, production and product marketing assistance from Friendship. After completion of the training, especially for weaving, learners are employed either at the Friendship Weaving Centre or work independently by procuring their own equipment and materials.

Picture 9. Learners on a tailoring course
Picture 10. Learners practising fabric printing

The Sustainable Economic Development Programme also offers other projects such as Agriculture, Rural Electrification, and Fishing. These projects equip learners with knowledge and skills for improving agricultural and fishing production yields and increasing family income. Furthermore, Friendship also provides learners with loans to buy the necessary equipment.

Approaches and Methodologies

Friendship’s programme design was based on information collected through a needs assessment which applied a methodology called Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). PRA is “a growing family of approaches and methods to enable local people to share, enhance and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions to plan and to act” (Chambers, 1994, p. 953).

For this approach, PRA is applied to the needs assessment and situation analysis. The gathered data is incorporated into the planning and management of programmes along with the knowledge and opinions of rural people. As a result, staff members can make relevant decisions on learner selection, class timings, centre/venue selection and teacher recruitment. Another result of applying this methodology is that, once enrolled, participants help each other with their learning. For example, if someone misses a session, other participants support her/him to catch up. Upon completion of the course, participants develop their plans for the future, including support sought from Friendship or other agencies. Based on these plans, Friendship links them with various training sessions offered by government departments, which include training on livestock, cow rearing, poultry rearing, tailoring and weaving, among others.

Specifically, the adult literacy classes apply teaching methods such as interactive discussions (participants write on the board, raise issues, and hold discussions in large groups) and individual and group work and demonstrations. Moreover, relevant resources from learners’ socio-cultural backgrounds, such as sticks, seeds and vegetables, are used to supplement the sessions as learning tools in conjunction with the textbooks.

Recruitment of Learners

The recruitment phase takes place once a year through three main activities:

  • Informal group meetings with community members: Friendship programme staff visit potential communities (each community has 200 households), and hold informal group meetings with selected community members. During these meetings, participants discuss learning needs for adults and adolescents in their communities, and Friendship staff introduce adult literacy courses.
  • Identification of potential learners: Friendship conducts an annual household survey in order to help select learners. Priority is given to those who are in most need of educational support. If the number of applications is higher than the allocated seats (20 in each centre), then Friendship places them on a waiting list until the next cycle begins.
  • Formal meetings with local government officials: These meetings are arranged to enhance local government officials’ support for the Friendship programme. Community needs and linkages between the Friendship programme and existing government programmes (income-generating training sessions) are identified during these meetings.

Recruitment and Training of Literacy Teachers

The ALP teachers work full-time and receive a monthly wage of around BDT 4,500 (US$ 53). Each Adult Literacy Centre has one literacy teacher; currently there are 49 teachers.

They are recruited from their local communities, which ensures high attendance rates among participants and better relationships among teachers and learners. Teachers also have easy access to communities, which enhances learner engagement in the programme. Additionally, ALP literacy teachers are required to have an education level of Grade 8 to Grade 10 (without a Secondary School Certificate). This makes Friendship one of the few NGOs in the country that deliberately recruits teachers to pass the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination, obtained in Grade 8.

After the recruitment phase, teachers attend a six-day initial training workshop, which covers the ALP curriculum. Three Teacher’s Handbooks on reading, writing, and calculation (see Pictures 11a, 11b and 11c) are used as the primary training material. Teachers learn the key content of adult literacy courses and instructional methods such as delivery of core lessons, motivation of adult learners, assessment of learners’ progress, attendance record-keeping, and the preparation of learners’ profiles, which includes keeping data related to their personal backgrounds and learning performance, used as necessary during the sessions.

The training programme is developed and conducted by experts in adult and adolescent literacy teaching and learning, who work in the Friendship head office in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In addition, all teachers attend two annual capacity-building training workshops (each for three days), which are also developed and delivered by experts from head office.

Picture 11a, 11b, 11c. Cover pages of the Teacher’s Handbooks

Assessment of Learning

At the end of the eighth month, learners should be able to read with proper intonation; write between three and four paragraphs; name days, months and seasons; add and subtract using four-digit numbers; and perform a simple calculation using the metric system. They are also expected to be able to handle everyday tasks, such as writing in a deposit cash book and being aware of their social rights and civic duties.

During the learning process, literacy teachers assess learners’ progress regularly by using the learners’ workbook as a formative assessment tool. Each learner receives a copy of the workbook and uses it to practise their literacy skills. Any time individual learners struggle with their learning process, literacy teachers offer them additional classes at their convenience. As a summative assessment, all learners take a final exam on completion of the three literacy courses. The exam, developed by Friendship, covers all the lessons taught in the ALP (reading, writing and arithmetic skills of Grades 1-3). It includes reading tasks, numerical exercises and writing activities (see Picture 12 for sample tests).

Currently, the assessment results of the ALP final exam, which is an equivalent to formal schooling (Grade 3 in Bangladesh), is not officially recognized. Friendship is, therefore, working towards establishing recognition and validation of its ALP from the relevant government education authority. The process has been further delayed due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions.

Picture 12. Sample of the final test for writing and numeracy

Monitoring and Evaluation

The monitoring and supervision of the ALP is carried out both at the field and head office levels. Chart 1 illustrates the supervision structure adopted by all Friendship education programmes.

Education Programme Team Supervision Structure

Chart 1. Education programme supervision structure (Friendship, n.d.b)

Monitoring and Supervision at the Field Level

Programme activities are directly monitored by supervisors at the field level (in sub districts, also known as union level). Supervisors are Friendship employees and there is one for every seven literacy teachers. They undertake field visits to each adult literacy centre at least twice per month to observe classes and hold discussions and interviews with literacy teachers and learners. Interviews provide information on learner attendance, the performance of both learners and teachers, and ideas and feedback on how to improve the programme. Both structured and unstructured questionnaires and checklists are used to collect this information. Each supervisor compiles a monthly report which is submitted to the Friendship Project Manager, who oversees programmes at the sub-district level. Additionally, each month, the Project Manager visits two adult literacy centres and a Friendship Project Officer visits four centres. Based on the reports prepared by the supervisors, and data collected during field visits, each Project Manager writes a monthly report and submits it to the Senior Programme Manager at the Friendship head office in Dhaka.

Monitoring and Supervision at the Head Office level

The Senior Programme Manager first reviews the project reports with assistance from the Education Team Leader and other members of the Head Office. The Team Leader oversees the education programmes, provides overall guidance, and manages the field team. The team leader mainly looks at attendance rates, graduation trends, dropout cases, and follow-up income generation training and activities. If there is any deviation or shortfall, it is immediately brought to the attention of the Friendship Education Director. Reports are also reviewed carefully during internal project review meetings within the Education Sector. Similarly, if any significant deviation occurs, it is put before the Executive Director for resolution.

Achievements and Impact

By 2018, 7,320 adult learners (including 7,140 female learners) had completed the Adult Literacy Programme and, by June 2019, 8,300 adult learners had take part in the programme. In that year, 456 learners joined Friendship’s vocational training programmes and 2,185 learners joined various government or other NGO income-generation trainings.

For detailed information, please see Table 2 below.

Details 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Total 1460 1460 1460 1460 1460 980
Number of male learners 80 (5%) 40 (4%) 20 (1%) 0 40 (3%) 0
Number of female learners 1380 (95%) 1420 (96%) 1440 (99%) 1460 (100%) 1440 (97%) 980 (100%)
Number of learners who joined Friendship vocational training (after completing the ALP programme) 90 (6%) 65 (4%) 48 (3%) 93 (6%) 60 (4%)... 100 (10%)
Number of learners who joined government or other NGO trainings (after completing the ALP programme) 260 (18%) 447 (31%) 525 (36%) 843 (58%) 60 (4%) 50 (5%)

Table 2. Number of learners 2014-2019

Upon completion of the Adult Literacy Programme, 90 per cent of learners can read a paragraph and posters, write the days of the week and simple sentences, and do simple calculations and additions with four digits. Besides these enhanced literacy and numeracy skills, learners have acquired more comprehensive skills for improving their livelihood and quality of life. The following points describe the impact of Friendship’s programme, as observed by teachers:

  • Learners who have completed the programme have basic literacy skills, as reflected in the final exams.
  • Graduates gain a higher awareness of social issues, such as a positive attitude towards their children’s education and an understanding of the consequences of early marriage and marriage dowries, primary healthcare, birth registration, etc.
  • With the experience gained through the Sustainable Economic Development Programme, learners have more opportunities for increasing their income. They also learn how to prepare a family income expenditure book, which helps them track their family expenses in order to increase their effectiveness in managing the family budget.
  • Graduates can assist and monitor their children’s learning and schooling.
  • Learners, especially women, have greater confidence in terms of self-expression and communication.
  • More than 40 per cent of graduates are involved in some kind of income-generating activity run by Friendship or another NGO.
  • More than 80 per cent of women attending the programme reported that their ideas are respected and considered within their communities.

Testimonials from Adult Learners

The following testimonials from learners capture the impact of the programme:

Picture 13. Lal Bhanu

‘Developing an ability to read books on poultry and the cattle business, and developing the skill of taking notes at a training session, helped me in rearing cows as it is the supporting trade of my family. I enrolled in the Friendship Adult Centre at Sannasir Char, Gaibandha, in 2016, and graduated in August 2017. After course completion, I knew some techniques on how to run a home business and earn some money. Then I discussed it with my husband and started a cow-rearing business. Now, I, who did not have any literacy skills before, can handle any small business and maintain income-expenditure easily. I am so grateful to Friendship for this great opportunity.’Ms Lal Bhanu, ALP learner

Picture 14. Salina Begam

‘I did not know how to read and write even a single letter but had a thirst for learning. In 2016, I was admitted into the Friendship Adult Literacy course in Raydashbari, Gaibandha, and completed this course in 2017. I learnt to read, write and maintain a financial accounting book. I have bought a sewing machine and now can make different types of dresses. I have become much more confident in my work and can support my husband, who works as day labourer. Contributing to my family means a lot, and I am so grateful to Friendship for giving me the opportunity.’ Ms Salina Begam

Challenges

The ALP faces challenges in four areas: regular attendance, safety, awareness of the programme, and recruitment of literacy teachers.

The annual drop-out rate for ALP learners is five per cent. However, if attendance remains above 90 per cent, Friendship continues to provides literacy classes to enrolled learners. The programme has also had to deal with barriers associated with gender roles and representation in Bangladeshi society, and gender-based violence. Thus, male learners in particular struggle to attend the programme because they have to work to earn an income and support their families – the average male absenteeism rate is 25 per cent. Soil erosion also contributes to this issue since it leads to male members’ migration during the harvesting seasons. Male learners usually move to other districts or the mainland for around two to five months during the harvesting season to look for a better income. As a result, the programme has to shift to new sites, leading to higher dropout rates.

Additionally, the community finds it unacceptable for men and women to mix in the same classroom, and there are limitations holding the sessions at night due to safety concerns for women learners and teachers.The safety factor also encompasses unstable weather conditions. Since project areas are heavily affected by flooding, adult literacy centres face a high risk of being submerged. As a strategy to cope with this situation, cost-effective and mobile literacy centres (as shown in Picture 15) are built by using prefabricated materials such as bamboo. This technique allows literacy centres to be moved to new places when the islands are affected by flooding.

Picture 15. Construction of classroom using prefabricated material

In terms of community awareness of the programme, limited means of communication and advocacy have made it difficult to publicize the learning opportunities provided by Friendship. Thus, as part of its promotional campaign, Friendship conducts household visits and holds meetings with local leaders and government representatives, to raise awareness and enrol as many learners as possible.

Finally, recruiting qualified literacy teachers remains a challenge due to the small number of people who hold the necessary qualifications. Moreover, teachers and potential teachers of Chars dwellers continually migrate, either due to climate change or to search for better opportunities on the mainland.

Lessons Learned

Lessons learned from the programme fall into three categories:

Flexibility concerning target population and services: The landscape of Chars is fragile and volatile and population size has significantly decreased due to migration. The geographical area of the Chars has also changed following various natural disasters. When new demographics emerge, the services offered have to be customized to address the precise needs of communities. In this context, flexibility in terms of the target population and service delivery mechanism is vital for any programme in the Chars. For instance, if a community shifts to another location or locations, and land erosion requires the dismantling of adult centres, Friendship maintains contact with learners – wherever they move to – and carries out a survey to reinstate the centre according to the community’s needs.

Coordination with locally elected members and community leaders: Due to the robust coordination system between elected members, religious clergy and other community leaders, the programme has been able to proceed without major obstacles, despite facing some minor issues concerning changing demographics and frequent natural disasters.

Engagement in income-generating activities: Adult literacy participants are eager and motivated to attend training courses that provide learning opportunities and the skills needed for income-generating activities. Thus, it is important to link adult literacy courses with income-generating work.

Sustainability

Friendship´s concept of sustainability goes beyond financial considerations. It encompasses not only the future of individual families but also the community. Thus, the programme ensures sustainability by adopting the following strategies:

  1. Sustaining learners’ knowledge and skills
  2. Beyond learning how to read, write and perform mathematical operations, graduates develop functional literacy and numeracy skills that allow them to incorporate their new abilities into their everyday lives. For instance, with skills they have gained from the programme, they can guide their children’s education in the early grades, and do so with a greater awareness of the importance of education; take advantage of the public and private services available to them; and practice better health and hygiene habits. All these are sustainable practices that influence the society as a whole.

  3. Engaging participants in income-generating activities
  4. Creating opportunities by connecting learners to vocational and skill-based training makes them independent earners in many cases. The skills and income they earn have long-lasting effects both for their own families and for society. Thus, Friendship continues to create even more training opportunities for participants, linking them with agencies that provide such instruction.

  5. Forming a federation for continued education
  6. This initiative is still in the planning process. Friendship intends to assist learners who have completed the ALP in founding a federation. This federation will offer activities that allow adults to keep practising the skills they have learnt from the programme. It will also include collective initiatives, including running cooperative shops in the Chars, providing computer services, and arranging after-school support for children. The goal is to set the federation up as a community-based organization, and to serve the community for a longer period of time by providing additional services based on knowledge and expertise gained through the programme.

  7. Sustainable funding
  8. Friendship uses a combination of income-generating activities (e.g. poultry and cattle rearing) and focused donor support for training and centres, including public and private donations. Through this strategy of diversifying its sources of income, Friendship is able to continue employing weavers, contributing socially and economically to the community, and reducing the overall amount of dependence on outside funding.

    In terms of donations, all the contributions made in Friendship’s partner countries, such as Luxembourg, France, Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Belgium, support the implementation of Friendship’s projects in Bangladesh. Thus, the global network is a source of financial support, but it also creates a platform for exchanging various skills and ideas, which are integral components of Friendship’s sustainability, including its ALP.

Sources

Chambers, R. 1994. The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. World Development, Volume 22, No 7 [online]. Available at:https://entwicklungspolitik.uni-hohenheim.de/uploads/media/Day_4_-_Reading_text_8.pdf [Accessed 14 August 2019].

Friendship. 2018. Friendship’s Strategic Plan 2018-2020. [pdf]. Available at: https://friendship.ngo/media-center/ [Accessed 31 August 2018].

Friendship. n.d.a. Categories and Skills by Grade. Bangladesh, s.n.

Friendship. n.d.b. Education programme supervision structure. Bangladesh, s.n.

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. 2019. Bangladesh: Annual Conflict and Disaster Displacement Figures. [online]. Available at:http://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/bangladesh [Accessed 10 September 2019].

Power and Participation Research Centre. 2016. Politics, Governance and Middle Income Aspirations: Realities and Challenges. [pdf] Bangladesh, UNDP. Available at: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/bangladesh/docs/Publications/Pub2016/policy%20brief.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2020].

Rural Development and Co-operative Division. n.d. Char Livelihoods Programme (CLP). [pdf] Available at: https://rdcd.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/rdcd.portal.gov.bd/publications/edcdc30e_a754_4758_aa2b_17cf3c5b82d7/Success%20Story%20of%20CLP.pdf [Accessed 16 November 2020].

Shihab, A. and Khan, A. 2015. The Status of Knowledge on Legal Rights, Government Structure and Education in the Northern Chars of Bangladesh. [pdf] Bangladesh, Friendship. Available at: https://friendship.ngo/media-center/ [Accessed 9 August 2019].

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). 2015. Education for All 2015 Global Monitoring Report. [pdf] UNESCO. Available at: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000232565/PDF/232565eng.pdf.multi [Accessed 22 August 2019].

UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIL). 2020. Education and Literacy. [online]. Available at: http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/bd [Accessed 16 November 2020].

World Bank Group. 2018. Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration. [pdf] World Bank Publications. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/29461 [Accessed 22 August 2019].

Contact

Brigadier General Ilyas Iftekhar Rasul, ndc, psc (Retd.)

Director and Head of Education

Friendship

Ka-14/2A, Baridhara North Road

(Kalachandpur), Dhaka-1212

Tel: +88 02 8417733-39

Fax: +88 02 8417732

Email:

Website: www.friendship.ngo

For citation please use

UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. Last update: 2 November 2021. Friendship’s Adult Literacy Programme. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. (Accessed on: 5 December 2021, 13:04 CET)

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