|Programme Title||Intergenerational Learning between Older Adults and Students|
|Implementing Organization||Longhutang Experimental Primary School, Xinbei District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China|
|Language of Instruction||Chinese|
|Programme Partners||Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education, East China Normal University, People’s Republic of China
Hehai Senior School, Xinbei District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
|Annual programme costs||USD 27,491.69|
|Date of Inception||January 2019|
Country context and background
With the rapid development of China’s economy, science and technology in recent years, lifelong learning has become increasingly important. Given China´s rapidly ageing population, lifelong learning is considered a strategic measure to improve the quality of the workforce and public health. In 2016 the World Health Organization released the National Assessment Report on ageing and health in China, which predicted that the number of older adults (over 60 years) will reach 402 million by 2040, accounting for about 28% of the Chinese population (World Health Organization, 2016). Finding ways to allow older adults to play more active roles and building a learning society adapted to their needs are therefore essential to the further development of China’s society and economy.
37.8% of people in China aged over 60 live with their adult children and grandchildren, while 9.7% live only with their grandchildren (Zhao et al., 2013). These grandparents are mainly responsible for taking their grandchildren to and from school and caring for their basic needs, such as providing meals (Lyu et al., 2020). This is due not only to centuries-old cultural tradition, but also to state policies and economic conditions (Zeng and Xie, 2014) which force parents to look for work outside of their communities, leaving children behind in their grandparents’ care. On the other hand, according to the Fifth National Population Census, the illiteracy rate among older adults was 47.54% in 2000. 31.08% of older adults with low literacy live in cities, 41.63% in smaller towns, and 54.24% in rural areas (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2000). It is therefore vital to improve grandparents’ literacy levels and to promote knowledge exchange between the generations.
Intergenerational education has become increasingly common in contemporary China (Li, 2019). In August 2000, the State Council of the People's Republic of China issued a "Decision on Strengthening Work for Older Adults". The document drew attention to the following important ideas: (1) taking the role of older adults seriously; (2) matching older adults’ abilities and interests with social needs; and (3) encouraging older adults to take care of and guide the younger generation, transfer their knowledge, and participate in social welfare and community development (The State Council of the People's Republic of China, 2000). Helping grandparents and grandchildren to learn together and from one another will ultimately contribute to the well-being of individuals, families and society as a whole.
Against this backdrop, the Intergenerational Learning programme (hereafter referred to as IL-O&S) between older adults and students was initiated in 2019 by the Longhutang Experimental Primary school (Longhutang school) in collaboration with the Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education (SMILE). From 2020 onward, the Hehai Senior School, an adult education school, became a partner, conducting various intergenerational learning activities between older adult learners and younger students. The activities were implemented by a project team consisting of school managers and class teachers (from Longhutong and Hehai schools) as well as education experts from SMILE.
The overall goal of the programme is to promote learning between and across generations, and to put the concept of lifelong learning into practice. In addition, the programme aims to nurture a culture of learning within families and communities.
Its specific objectives are:
- For children to learn about and inherit their traditional culture through intergenerational learning activities with older adults.
- For children to improve their life skills by engaging in housework-related activities together with older family members.
- For children to develop closer emotional attachment to their culture, communities and families.
- For older adults to enhance the quality of their lives by updating their knowledge and building a better relationship with younger generations.
- For older adults to build their confidence and skills in community development and civic engagement.
The programme consists of the following two main stages:
- 1. The first stage is called Family Intergenerational Learning (FIL). This stage focuses on learning between grandparents and grandchildren within the family. It was piloted in Longhutang primary school during the winter vacation in 2019.
Another form of FIL is called 1+n Families Intergenerational Learning (1+n-FIL). It has two main purposes: (a) to reach students whose grandparents do not live with them; and (b) to provide continuity during the semester.
- 2.The second stage is called Intergenerational Learning Lecture (ILL). At this stage, intergenerational learning takes place not only in one educational institution but also between two educational institutions. Specifically, during the pilot phase, students from Longhutang primary school and older learners from Hehai school jointly participated in intergenerational learning activities.
Stage 1. Family Intergenerational Learning (FIL) in Longhutang school
During the 2019 winter vacation, an FIL activity entitled Learning Skills from Your Grandparents & Grandchildren was carried out with a pilot class. The initial draft of the overall project plan, including learning content, requirements and assessment, was developed through classroom discussions among teachers and students. It was shared on the class QQ 1 group for parents' and grandparents' feedback before being revised and finalized. Based on the overall project plan, children and grandparents jointly developed their own plan for learning that suited their situation and interests. For this purpose, family meetings were conducted under parental supervision. During the winter vacation, grandparents and grandchildren carried out their own intergenerational learning activities.
The implementing process of FIL includes the following six main steps:
- Promoting the school initiative
A school proposal is developed and distributed widely to encourage students, parents and grandparents to participate in FIL during the winter vacation. The proposal lists some examples of FIL activities (see Table 1 for examples).
- Developing a class-level activity plan
The class teacher proposes a class activity plan. Students then discuss the content, requirements, and methods of assessing FIL.
- Designing a family-based plan (See Figure 1)111
Each family holds learning session(s) to draw mind maps that define the content and methods of FIL.
- Signing an agreement between grandparents and grandchildren
The signed agreements help ensure their commitment to carrying out the learning plan.
- Conducting FIL activities and sharing with other families
Photos, videos and articles produced through FIL activities are shared in the Class QQ group for teachers and other families to provide timely feedback.
- Exhibition and evaluation
At the start of the new semester, parents and community workers are invited to an exhibition of learning outcomes where they select and acknowledge outstanding learners.
- 1.Each group completes the planned learning tasks on time.
- 2.Each grandchild learns at least five skills from his/her grandparent.
- 3.Each grandparent learns at least three skills from his/her grandchild.
- 4.Each group shares the learning results in the Class QQ group.
- The frequency of learning activities organized
- Learners’ interests and learning content
- What students had learned from the activities
- Learners’ expectations for future activities.
- They are from either Longhutang or Hehai
- They are good at teaching
- They have time and interest.
- 1. Intergenerational Learning Lectures/Courses in Longhutang
Lectures/courses in Longhutang were based on textbooks of various subjects. Teachers carefully selected teaching content that was interesting and relevant to both older adults and children. They creatively re-arranged and re-constructed the selected content to make it interesting and appropriate for the learners.
- 2. Intergenerational Learning Lectures/Courses in Hehai
Lectures/courses in Hehai focused on Chinese traditional culture. From May 2020 the content of ILL was expanded by including 17 learning themes based on the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (SDGs). Every month, eight intergenerational learning courses were conducted on one theme (40 minutes per course). In total, the 17 themes took about 136 hours of teaching.
- Learning Together. Through reading materials, students and older adults expanded their understanding of the themes of the SDGs 4 They also learned about the concepts and the current situation both in China and around the world. They explored the various reasons for poverty and strategies for coping with the issue.
- Learning From Each Other. First, learners shared their personal stories and experiences with each other. Second, they discussed the theme to enhance their understanding of it. Third, they identified and agreed on possible actions they could take.
- Practice. Learners carried out specific actions and recorded their experiences. After each activity, students and older adults evaluated the learning outcomes and identified areas for improvement.
- Project teachers took notes on their observation and feedback.
- Class teachers and project teachers evaluated each course and learning activity.
- Parents recorded and evaluated home learning activities and reported to the teachers.
- Learners’ feedback was collected through questionnaires and interviews.
- Older adults and children supervised and evaluated each other’s performance.
- Based on combined evaluation from teachers, adults and children, outstanding learners were identified and awarded certificates.
- This kind of activity is very meaningful and useful for children, and they should participate more in such activities in the future. (Zhou Kexin’s mother)
- Intergenerational learning activities help younger generations learn local customs and practices, some of which we (children and their parents) do not know. We are eager to learn from grandparents with our children in the future and hope that this activity will continue. (Deng Yiran's mother)
- My granddaughter taught me a lot...I learned to check information on pandemic prevention.... I did not know how to shop online until she taught me. (Zhang Jian, elderly learner at Hehai)
- The intergenerational learning approach is unique and novel. Older adults are very happy with their children. When we see the children, we are very excited. Classes with children brought me back to my childhood. This activity has brought us a lot of happiness, and I like it very much.
(Zhang Jian, elderly learner of Hehai)
- Intergenerational learning is a pioneering work. The older adults are very happy to study with the children. Nowadays, school education methods are particularly good; they are modern and inspirational. With the children, I feel better in spirit and much younger!
(Li Zhifang, elderly learner of Hehai)
- Intergenerational learning activities have brought me great happiness. As an old man, I can go back to primary school and have classes with children. I feel that my life is full! Good job!
(Miao Yifeng, elderly learner of Hehai)
- Some older adults had limited literacy skills, some were not interested in intergenerational learning, and others found it difficult to participate due to other problems.
- Some students were not easy to keep in touch with during vacations.
- Some students did not actively participate in the programme.
- Some parents and grandparents did not fully understand the concept of intergenerational learning.
- Some students were unable to find either grandparents or elderly adults with whom to participate in intergenerational learning.
- It was difficult to ensure continuity of learning between grandparents and grandchildren after the vacation.
- It was difficult to develop a standard learning programme since many elderly learners had different skills and literacy levels.
- It was difficult to monitor learning activities during the vacation.
- The curriculum planning needed to be informed by scientific knowledge of the learning needs and preferences of older adults and children of different ages.
- The programme required teachers to invest a lot of spare time and energy. Without subsidies and rewards, it was not easy to attract more teachers to participate in the project.
- Various ways to motivate and monitor learners: Three factors helped ensure the smooth planning and implementation of programme activities: the ‘Intergenerational Learning Agreement’ between older adults and students; on-site exhibitions and evaluation at class and school levels; and the ‘Intergenerational Learning and Mutual Visiting Agreement’ between the two partner schools.
- Strong support from school management and expert team: School leaders took the opportunity to promote the programme at major events such as ‘Academic Festival’, ‘Project Studio’ and ‘Selection of Excellent School Projects’.
Additionally, continuous technical guidance and support from the expert group, led by SMILE, greatly contributed to the success of the programme. Developing and publishing key materials gave the team members confidence and strength to continue the programme.
- The positive influence of ‘seed families’: ‘Seed families’, who are particularly motivated and engaged, played a crucial role in implementing and promoting the programme. Their active engagement influenced many families to participate in the programme activities.
- To identify families’ needs, a detailed questionnaire regarding their current situation should be prepared before launching the programme.
- It is important to motivate and recognize the important role played by ‘seed families’. They are instrumental in implementing the activities and promoting the programme among more children and older adults.
- High attention and multiple forms of encouragement are vital to keep elder learners motivated and actively engaged in continuous learning.
- Combining centralized and decentralized learning: schools make a general plan and organize centralized learning during the vacation and evaluation activities at the beginning of the semester. During the semester, each class makes its own plan and organizes its own integrational learning activities.
- Combining the vacation with the semester: family or home-based intergenerational learning is implemented during the vacation, and school-based integrational learning activities during the semester.
- Combining the main model and variant models: the main model refers to intergenerational learning between grandparents and their grandchildren within a family, while the variant model refers to learning between students and other elderly people.
- Combining general and tailored activities and sub-activities: general activities are planned and organized by the school, while tailored activities are developed and implemented to meet the specific needs of participating families.
Figure. 1 An example of a mind map in FIL sessions
Data collected by the programme demonstrated that the skills most grandparents chose to teach their grandchildren included cooking traditional dishes, playing games, learning to speak local dialects, and life skills. Grandchildren preferred teaching their grandparents digital skills (e.g. how to make payments, shoot videos, navigate and shop online) and urban life skills useful for their grandparents' daily life, such as taking the subway and separating materials for recycling.
In addition to the FIL implemented during the winter vacation, the 1+n-FIL was carried out via Grandparents Entering the Classroom. Some older adults with special skills such as paper cutting and Chinese calligraphy were invited to teach children life skills in a classroom setting. Moreover, students and older adults were encouraged to participate in the 1+n FIL on weekends in a similar structure to FIL. As well as grandchildren and grandparents, learners included children and older adults from the same school or community.
Teaching and learning approaches
When conducting FIL activities, grandparents and grandchildren act as each other’s teachers. Since the time and venue for learning are flexible, some structural principles are required to ensure effective learning. Each grandparent-grandchild group therefore signed an agreement which included four requirements:
Selection and training of grandparents as teachers
Selection of learners and teachers: Older adults and children acted as both teachers and learners. Grandchildren taught either their own grandparents or other older adults who had shown interest in the programme. Similarly, grandparents usually chose their grandchildren as teachers, which was also recommended by the programme. When learners had difficulty finding a peer-learner, the school provided them with individualized support. For example, in cases where grandparents were unwilling to participate, the class teacher visited the grandparents or asked the children’s parents to help convince them. If grandparents had passed away or were unable to attend due to health issues, the class teacher helped children team up with grandparents of their classmates.
Training: There were four steps to train the grandparent-teacher. First, the class teacher announced the FIL proposal to grandparents through video messages via QQ. Second, students explained the project to their grandparents. Third, the "seed" grandparents demonstrated how to participate in the project via video messages to other grandparents. Fourth, the grandchildren taught the older adults different skills, including how to use digital devices and applications.
The grandchild-teachers were trained by schoolteachers according to the following steps. First, teachers guided students to choose the skills they would like to teach. Second, teachers taught the students the methods and skills they would need to implement their activities. Third, the "seed" grandchildren practised different activities at home and sent videos to their teachers. The teacher reviewed and showcased them as examples to other students. Finally, students learned specific skills, such as taking pictures, making videos and sharing them on Meipian , to continuously record and share their learning experiences.
Key content of FIL
The learning content covered more than 10 subject areas, such as traditional food, housework, general knowledge of life and Chinese culture, handicrafts, sports, language, art and information technology, health and hygiene, etc. More than 150 themes were included under these areas (see Table 1), from which grandparents and grandchildren chose those they found most interesting. They were encouraged to contextualize the learning content based on their own regional characteristics.
Table 1: Summary of themes and topics for FIL (January 2019)
|Children learn skills from grandparents||Food||Making wonton soup (Chinese-style dumpling), steamed bread, roll noodles, Tangyuan (a Chinese dessert made from glutinous rice flour and water in a hot broth or syrup or deep-fried), sugar-steamed buns, braised pork belly, etc.|
|Household chores||Making quilts, hanging things on the wall, sweeping and mopping the floor, panning rice, organizing the closet, feeding pets, etc.|
|Art||Learning square dance, making clay figurines, playing Erhu (Chinese violin), learning paper cutting and Chinese calligraphy, etc.|
|Handicraft||Weaving scarves, making handbags, cutting paper characters, making fans, making stilts, crocheting, etc.|
|Skills||Fishing, playing chess, riding bikes, reading prescriptions, using an abacus, pounding medicines, planting flowers, kneading dough, drilling a well, etc.|
|Sports||Walking on stilts, hoop rolling, jumping rope, jumping squares, stone skipping, etc.|
|Language||Learning regional dialects such as Changzhou, Kunshan, and Yangzhou.|
|General knowledge of life and Chinese culture||Using Chinese steelyard (a type of scale), learning traditional etiquette, posting Duilian (couplets in Chinese poetry), learning 24 solar terms, and proverbs.|
|Grandparents learn skills from their grandchildren||Information technology||Watching smart TV, making phone calls, setting up the internet connection, using smart phones (to send messages, make video calls, listen to music, read e-books, transfer money, search for transportation routes, etc.), using popular Chinese social media apps, etc.|
|Language||Learning English and Mandarin.|
|Life creativity||Learning magic tricks, snowman building, turning waste into treasure.|
|Handicraft||Origami (paper folding), cutting window flowers from paper, flower arrangement.|
|Sports||Gymnastics, aerobics, rope skipping, badminton, table tennis.|
|Food||Making egg tarts, ice cream, milk tea, French fries and jam.|
A book edited by the project team entitled We, The Most Beautiful 2 was used as the main teaching resource (see Table 2 for key contents). This learner-generated material was developed during the implementation of the project. It includes 120 short stories about intergenerational learning activities co-written by children, parents and grandparents based on their learning experiences. The book is easy to read and makes the intergenerational learning process vivid, practical, and easy to learn and use independently. During the project, parents appreciated this book and found it useful for family members to learn from one another.
Table 2: Table of contents of the book
Monitoring and Evaluation
During the vacation, the children and older adults signed the agreement on FIL. Parents supervised the activities and shared learning experiences and outcomes in the class QQ Group. Teachers monitored each family’s learning sessions and gave timely guidance and feedback. At the beginning of the semester, the school organized a school-based exhibition and evaluation of the programme. Parents and community workers were invited to participate in the evaluation and put forward their suggestions.
Evaluation of learning outcomes
Class and school exhibitions and evaluations were the main methods by which the learning outcomes of FIL were evaluated. Firstly, classroom exhibitions of learning outcomes were organized by parents, teachers and students. Participants voted after the exhibition. Each person had 10 votes to cast for the exhibitions they liked the most. Based on the number of votes received, 10 gold medal students, 10 silver medal students and 10 bronze medal students were selected. The gold medal students were invited to participate in the school exhibition. The school then selected one “Outstanding Intergenerational Learner” from the gold medal students who was invited to share his/her experiences and stories on the school's official media (eg. the WeChat official account).
Evaluation of FIL
Learners’ feedback on the FIL activities was collected via questionnaires and interviews in order to learn more about:
This evaluation informed the next stage of the project. For example, as a result of the evaluation, the 1+n FIL was modified to include students whose grandparents had passed away or were unable to attend due to health issues.
Stage 2: Intergenerational Learning Lecture
The second stage of the programme was called the International Learning Lecture (hereafter referred to as ILL). During this stage, the Longhutang and Hehai schools jointly carried out intergenerational learning activities on a monthly basis (see Table 3 for the skills areas and learning topics). Students and older adults from two partner schools learned skills from each other with a relatively fixed class schedule, content and teachers.
The learning activities were interactive and fun, as illustrated in Figures 2, 3 and 4.
Teaching and learning approaches
Teachers use the elderly student-centred teaching method, paying attention to the interaction between children and older adults. Generally, the 40-minute lecture is divided into three parts: 20 minutes for teaching, 10 minutes for group-based competitions on skills just taught, and the last 10 minutes for individuals to practise what they have learned.
Selection and training of teachers
The selection of teachers is based on the following three criteria:
The “Teaching Offices” of the two schools organized a one-day training course for the selected teachers. The training included preparing lessons, setting teaching objectives, understanding teaching difficulties, analysing learners' situations, designing sections, and assigning homework. Teachers also helped to identify differences between adult learners and children and to boost interaction and cooperation between them. A practical part of this training included a demonstration/trial lesson conducted by the selected teachers, with others acting as students. Teachers also provided feedback on how to improve the teaching and learning process.
Selection of learners
Taking into consideration traffic safety and appropriate age groups, Longhutang primary school selected seven classes from the Fifth Grade to visit Hehai (the adult education school) and attend courses there. The selected classes took turns to attend every course.
Hehai selected older adults based on their interest in the courses offered by Longhutang. At the beginning of the semester, Longhutang shared its teaching schedules with Hehai so that older adults could choose courses that interested them.
The courses were divided into two types:
The main teaching material for this stage was a book entitled Intergenerational Learning Manuals, which was developed by programme teachers and covered the 17 learning themes listed above. It consists of three chapters: (1) Learning together; (2) Learning from each other; and (3) Practice.
The content of each chapter is summarized as follows:
Monitoring and Evaluation
The programme was monitored and evaluated in the following ways:
Children, grandparents and other family members greatly benefited from this programme. Three themes were identified in the interview data: (1) learning new knowledge and skills; (2) increased happiness; (3) enhanced relationships between the older adults and students.
Learning new knowledge and skills
The programme created various opportunities for students and older adults to learn from each other. This was reflected in the following testimonies 5 :
Moreover, the programme carried out various activities to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the project team invited a doctor to provide online hygiene and health education training for every family; students were organized to create anti-pandemic prevention poems; and teachers gave health lectures to the families. These activities promoted the healthy growth of children and young people and provided families with useful knowledge and skills to protect themselves from the virus.
Increased satisfaction and joy
The older adults felt happy about learning with children, as illustrated by the following testimonies:
Enhanced relationships between older adults and students
Intergenerational learning is not only about transferring knowledge, but also interacting with and understanding each other better (Lyu et al., 2020). A closer relationship between older adults and students was developed through the learning process, which is illustrated by the following testimony:
This activity is very good. The grandparents and grandchildren learn from each other and have fun. The older adults do not think the child is childish, and the children do not think the older adult is old-fashioned. (Li Kangnian's mother)
At the outset, about 140 learners from 47 families participated in the programme. To date, more than 2,000 families and more than 6,000 learners have participated. Scaling up the programme will allow more older adults and children to be involved.
The impact of the programme went beyond its original targeted learners and their families. As a school-based programme, in the beginning, it was barely known to the outside world. However, during the implementation process, the programme gained the attention and recognition of education departments, radio stations, newspapers and other media across the country. IL-O&S was featured many times by the Changzhou city TV Station through a special broadcasting series on the programme, including the episodes “Happy Sports for the Young and the Old”, “Healthy Life for Three Generations”, and “Growing Together under the Blue Sky: The Advocacy for Intergenerational Learning”. A special documentary film about the programme has been continuously broadcast for seven episodes on Changzhou TV Station’s “Urban Channel”.
The following key challenges were encountered by the programme:
More diverse learning activities will be designed and implemented to meet the special needs of learners. For example, since many elderly learners have difficulty with literacy, the school will organize reading and writing activities between older adults and children. With the help of parents, the children and their grandparents can learn together. In this way, older adults will gain the confidence to participate in other programme activities.
The programme will undergo further development according to the following four key principles.
Cheng, H., Ding, X. and Li J. 2020. How can "cross-domain" learning promote the development of primary school students? Based on the case studies of Longhutang and Hehai. Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education. Research on Lifelong Education in China (2), pp. 70-86. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong University Press.
Cheng, H., Ding, X., Li, J. and Lyu, K. 2020. Intergenerational learning realizes intergenerational learning between the older adults and children: A Case Study Based on Longhutang and Hehai. Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education: Research on Lifelong Education in China (2), pp. 86-107. Shanghai: Jiaotong University Press.
Ding, X. 2019. A new pattern of intergenerational Education with intergenerational learning. The Horizon of Education,5(7), pp. 33-35.
Li, J. and Chen, J. 2013. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese classroom. International Journal of Progressive Education, 3(9), pp. 91–106.
Li J. 2019. Practice Type and Development Trend of Intergenerational Education: on Intergenerational Learning in the Construction of Learning Society. The Horizon of Education, 5(7), pp. 31-32.
Lyu, K., Xu, Y., Cheng, H. et al. 2020. The implementation and effectiveness of intergenerational learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from China. Hamburg, UIL. [pdf] Available at: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11159-020-09877-4.pdf [Accessed 26 June 2021].
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The State Council of the People's Republic of China. 2000. Decision on Strengthening the Work for the Aged. [online] Available at: https://www.pkulaw.com/chl/2144c2be01b0ccb1bdfb.html?keyword
[Accessed 26 August 2020].
World Health Organization. 2016. National Assessment Report on Aging and Health in China. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/china-country-assessment/zh/ [Accessed 11 August 2020].
Wu, X. 2007. Advantages and disadvantages of intergenerational Education and its countermeasures. Journal of Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences (Social Science Edition), 26(4), pp. 111-112.
Zhao, Y., Strauss, J., Yang, G., Giles, J., Hu, P., Hu, Y., Lei, X., Liu, M., Park, A., Smith, J.P., & Wang, Y. 2013. China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS): 2011–2012 National baseline users' guide. [pdf] Available at: http://charls.pku.edu.cn/Public/ashelf/public/uploads/document/2011-charls-wave1/application/CHARLS_nationalbaseline_users_guide.pdf [Accessed 26 July 2021].
Zeng, Z., & Xie, Y. 2014. The effects of grandparents on children's schooling: Evidence from rural China. Demography. 51(2), pp. 599–617.
Ms. Xiaoming Ding
Vice-Principal of Longhutang Experimental Primary School, Xinbei District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
No.1, Longhu Road, Xinbei District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
Mr. Jiacheng Li
Executive Vice President of Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education of East China Normal University in Shanghai, China
3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Mr. Mingxin Yin
Headmaster of Hehai Senior School, Xinbei District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
2nd floor, Hehai home care service center, Sanjing street, Xinbei District, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China
1. Tencent QQ (commonly known as QQ), like Twitter and Facebook, is one of the most popular mobile phone social media applications in China. People can use it to chat with friends, make phone calls, share moments and organize group chats and communities. ↩
2. Meipian is a Chinese social media tool for authors and editors to design images and posts. Users can include words, pictures, videos, music, and even tabs for sub-pages. With Meipian, anyone can easily import pictures from the computer, edit the graphics and text, and support the free drag-and-drop sequence using the mouse. It is more suitable for long-length graphic creation scenes, to make editing more efficient. (See https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/meipian ↩
For more information, please visit https://book.yunzhan365.com/logzv/hove/mobile/index.html?from=groupmessage&isappinstalled=0. ↩
4. The SDGs include: 1. no poverty; 2. zero hunger; 3. good health and well-being; 4. quality education; 5. gender equality; 6. clean water and sanitation; 7.affordable and clean energy; 8. decent work and economic growth; 9. industry, innovation and infrastructure; 10. reduce inequalities; 11. sustainable cities and communities; 12. responsible consumption and production; 13. climate action;14. life below water; 15. life on land; 16. peace, justice and strong institutions; 17. partnerships for the goals. ↩
5. Students, parents and older adults gave permission to use their real names.