Rising on Air, West Africa

  • Date published:
    15 November 2021

Programme summary

Programme Title Rising on Air (ROA)
Implementing Organization Rising Academy Network (RAN)

20-plus countries

Headquarters in Sierra Leone

Language of Instruction Multiple languages (mother tongue, host country’s dominant language, combination of first and second languages)
Date of Inception March 2020
Programme Partners Creative Commons, Liberia Ministry of Education, We Can Lead, University of Oxford, Global Giving, UBS Optimus Foundation, Save the Children, Innovation Unit, Ark, Results for Development, The Solon Foundation
Funding International NGO; foreign donor
Annual Programme Costs USD 400,000
Annual Programme Cost per Learner USD 0.03
Annual cost of the digital tool USD 500
Digital tool(s) used Radio, podcasts, WhatsApp, SMS, Slack, social media, phone.
Target population Refugees, migrants, out-of-school youth, women and girls
Learner age 3–23
Learner to instructor ratio N/A
Target skill(s)
  • Literacy
  • Literacy and rural development
  • Literacy and gender
  • Literacy for health
  • Literacy to lifelong learning
  • Impact Over 50,000 learners in three countries (Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ghana)
    Programme website https://www.risingacademies.com/


    The COVID-19 pandemic has left more than 1.5 billion children out of school globally (Strauss, 2020). In March 2020, the Rising on Air[1] (ROA) radio programme was created by the Rising Academy Network[2] (RAN) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In an attempt to prevent the disruption of education services caused by the pivot to remote learning in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ghana, and drawing on similar educational challenges faced during the Ebola crisis, the ROA programme was designed as a distance learning solution that could ‘strengthen and build students’ foundational skills even when they are out of school’.

    RAN provides educational services to students with low literacy skills and limited access to the internet. Radio is the primary means of contact due to its ‘higher penetration levels’ (Ho & Thukral, 2009; Wittels & Maybanks, 2016), as well as alternative methods of outreach such as podcasts, WhatsApp, text-messaging (SMS) and other platforms. Most ROA material is intended for students in the K-12 (kindergarten to twelfth grade) environment. Curricula are written by local design teams which tailor the material according to the target audience´s language and available information and communication technology (ICT).  This helps to expand access to the programme for learners beyond the formal system.

                  Several countries around the world have adopted the ROA programme in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Distance learning is especially important in countries such as Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso which have experienced a history of civil unrest. Sierra Leone is making up for gaps in ICT capacities as it recovers from a devastating civil war that destroyed its infrastructure (World Bank, 2007). Burkina Faso continues to face terrorist groups that target the education sector, causing schools to close and families to withdraw their children from school in fear for their safety. Over the past three years, 350,000 children in Burkina Faso were forced to drop out of school due to terrorist violence. These children long for a way to continue their education (Mackinnon, 2020). 

                  Another consequence of this violence is an increasing number of refugees and internally displaced people. Countries such as Uganda and Liberia host millions of refugees from neighbouring nations (UNHCR, 2018). Although Liberia has a national ICT policy plan that aims to significantly develop the technology sector over the next five years (Lumeh, 2019), refugee settlements continue to face unreliable electricity and internet connections (UNHCR, 2020), increasing the demand for a distance learning tool that is accessible in low connectivity settings.

                  Countries such as India and Ghana have made impressive progress in developing and integrating ICT into national curricula in recent years (Mangesi, 2007). However, the COVID-19 pandemic revealed a vast digital divide that exacerbates inequalities, excluding female learners in particular. Recent progress in female school enrolment is threatened, as girls who are out of school for an extended period are unlikely to return (Amporo & Nabbuye, 2020). Distance learning is therefore crucial to maintaining the education of the world’s most vulnerable learners. 

    Overview of the programme

    Rising on Air is a free distance learning solution licensed under the Creative Commons.[3] The programme uses RAN’s curriculum which is ‘high-quality and structured’ (RAN, 2020) in nature, redesigned for delivery via radio and SMS. The programme aims to assist several governments and partners around the world by providing high-quality teaching and learning to millions of children who are out of school due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve its aim, ROA provides lesson scripts and pre-recorded audio content to be delivered via radio and SMS. ROA prides itself on having ‘early years, lower primary, upper primary, and secondary content’ (RAN, 2020) already available, with new resources being added on a weekly basis.

    On its website, RAN (2020) states:

    Rising on Air is a free distance learning solution reaching over 12 million children globally and licensed under the Creative Commons.

    ROA provides curricula that include literacy/language, arts and numeracy/maths for five different levels, from early childhood to senior secondary. All content is available primarily via radio, with printable worksheets and SMS options available as enhancements. The programme is delivered in 20-week units designed to reach refugees, migrants, out-of-school youth, and women and girls. It is provided free of charge to partner organizations worldwide.

    There is currently no initial diagnostic assessment for the programme but ROA is working on its development. Users can choose which content to address. Likewise, at this time there is no formal assessment to measure educational gains for the as yet indefinite remote learning period.

    Programme objectives

    Aiming to serve an increasing number of refugees, migrants and out-of-school youth, especially women and girls, the objectives of ROA are to:

    • Raise the quality of education for refugee students in camps and schools by ROA content into the educational provision by local and international organizations.
    • Quickly reach students in emergency and crisis situations (including health crises, natural disasters and human conflict) with quality learning content by embedding ROA into crisis-response networks.
    • Use ROA to reach marginalized children in non-crisis settings who are nevertheless unable to attend school, e.g. because they have to work.


    The wide reach of the ROA material ensures free distance learning for learners of various ages, languages, and access to technology. In total, it reaches more than 10 million children in 25 countries across Africa and Asia. ROA has content available for five different levels (early childhood education [ECE], lower primary, upper primary, lower secondary, upper secondary), catering to the needs of learners aged 3–23. Learners at different starting points can therefore find their level within the programme.

    Curricula are designed with specific groups of learners in mind. Written in English, French and Arabic, lessons are formatted for change of language, and made to be adaptable to formats other than radio. The lessons are designed to be applicable to students in multiple grade levels and are easily accessible. Moreover, the content of the lessons varies in difficulty in order to engage students with a wide range of abilities.

    As mentioned, the radio format was selected due to its broad availability to students in the countries served by RAN: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ghana. With limited access to the internet in these areas and little turnaround time at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, these regions also drew on their experience during the Ebola outbreak to provide instruction to learners quickly and with minimal disruption.

    The structured framework of the curricula is used by 35 partner organizations and has even been adapted for student populations outside of the traditional K-12 range. One group uses the material for a programme titled MyAgro,[4] reaching 400,000 farmers in Senegal and Mali.

    A unique aspect of the programme is that the curriculum does not ignore teachers’ own learning needs. It provides professional development training to teachers in radio format.

    Student taking notes during a lesson (Credit to Rising On Air).

    Learner enrolment

    Since ROA is a radio-based programme made available to local education providers, the enrolment process varies according to the practices of the individual users. Any student with access to national radio can be an ROA learner.


    Learner assessment

    As with enrolment, assessment also varies according to the practices of the individuals that use the material. There are no tests or other traditional assessment markers included in the ROA curriculum. A typical assessment approach consists of a survey that targets students and their parents for their feedback on ROA programming, primarily via telephone or SMS. This is done after the lessons are provided via radio. The ROA team and teachers also call parents for feedback periodically or receive calls from the beneficiaries regarding the content of the programme.

    Programme providers use this feedback to develop and refine the ROA model through schools in their network. The learning gained from such experiences then informs work with governments and other partners in order to improve the overall quality of schools. This work is carried out at scale throughout the wide range of schools targeted by the programme ‘at a third of the unit cost of other leading networks’.

    Teaching and learning approaches

    ROA was designed to be highly structured yet adaptable. It reports that roughly one-third of its partner/user organizations used the lessons exactly as written, while another third adapted them slightly and the final third adapted the lessons considerably. It planned for the contingency that local design teams would adapt the curriculum[5] to fit their contexts.

    ROA was built for rapid replication and deployment. We support implementation with toolkits, how-to guides and webinars, while our Collaborators on Air online community has connected 127 experts and practitioners from 45 countries, a huge source of intangible capital for scaling. The instructional design includes direct instruction, deliberative practice, teacher modelling, multisensory activities, and think-aloud. Health and safety messages specifically addressing COVID-19 are worked into most lessons.

    ROA identified the need to provide educational opportunities as well as opportunities for outreach to teachers through the process of delivery. it realized that delivering lessons via radio could result in the exclusion of teachers as active participants in the learning process. ROA therefore created a subset of materials specifically for the professional development of teachers.

    ROA follows a three-step process for content development (see Figure 1). If an organization is interested in using materials produced by ROA, the programme makes it simple for them to do so.  According to the ROA website (RAN, 2020), an organization can simply:

    • download radio-ready scripts,
    • edit scripts to meet local needs,
    • re-record the adapted scripts in a local voice.

    Figure 1: Three-step process to create and record content (adapted from RAN, 2020).


    ROA provides curricula structured as Radio ECE, Radio Reading and Radio Maths. Radio ECE targets children ages 3–5, providing instruction to address foundational skills including phonics, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension and ‘early language’. Introducing each lesson with a health and safety message, Radio ECE ‘integrates play, song, and movement through socio-emotional activities and fine and gross motor skills practice’.

    Radio ECE also addresses numeracy for children in the same age range, again starting each lesson with a health and safety message. Instruction covers counting fluency, number recognition and manipulation of numbers up to 20.

    Radio Maths continues to address numeracy and mathematical skills for students at lower primary, upper primary, junior secondary, senior secondary and high school level. The lower levels explore place value, addition, subtraction, mathematical vocabulary and fluency, while the upper levels build on these foundations, continuing with larger numbers as well as multiplication, division, powers, etc. Like Radio ECE, lessons in Radio Maths start out with a health and safety message, and also integrate play and movement for the listener-learners.

    Radio Reading has a similar reach to Radio Maths: lower primary (grades 1–3), upper primary (grades 4–6), four ranges of (junior) secondary school and three ranges of (senior) secondary school. The primary levels build phonological and phonemic awareness, phonics knowledge, basic listening and vocabulary. Secondary levels continue to build on these skills and also help to develop a breadth of comprehension skills that progress in complexity. Like its counterparts, this series of radio lessons includes additional support for students via SMS. Each lesson in Radio Reading begins with a mindfulness activity and ends with a health and safety message. Additionally, the lessons in this series are designed to practise skills that will be assessed on national exams. Summaries of ROA curricula such as Radio ECE,[6] Radio Maths[7] and Radio Reading[8] can be accessed online.

    The site also has a Partner Portal,[9] through which an organization can access everything needed to use ROA, including lessons that are broken down by week and links to summaries and scripts for all curriculum levels. Their website has extensive information about the use of SMS for contacting students and parents, including guidance on technology[10] with step-by-step instructions.

    Recruitment and training of facilitators

    Since ROA is a radio-based programme to which local education providers are given access, the recruitment and training of facilitators varies according to the practices of the individual programmes that use the material. Theoretically, since ROA’s materials are freely available under Creative Commons licensing rules, anyone can access and utilize them.

    As explained by ROA, since the lessons are aired on the radio, they are designed to be used without a facilitator. However, some of ROA’s global partners are implementing the lessons in small ‘listening groups’ with facilitators. This ‘depends on a partner’s chosen delivery mechanism’.

    Teachers can also use the website described above as an extensive resource. It features directions and (in some cases) scripts for making phone calls to students. ROA provides information on professional development for teachers,[11] with scripts and audio to help teachers hone their craft.

    ROA has a Teacher Professional Development (ROA Teacher PD), called ‘Do Now’[12]. Teachers read about a commonly used classroom activity for primary and secondary levels. The lesson is a complete document that lists the topic, introduction and rationale for having a Do-Now starter, explaining what makes it effective. This is followed by a summary of the lesson, space and directions for teacher reflection, and instructions for teacher well-being and mindfulness. The lesson is also scripted with specific instructions on what to say, how to signal for transitions, and when all of these elements should be stated. 

    Teachers recording their lessons (Credit to Rising On Air)

    Technology: Infrastructure, management and use


    The greatest challenge presented to RAN is the absence of information and communication technologies in the countries where it provides in-person instruction: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ghana. It is therefore designed to work without a reliable internet connection, instead using technologies which are more widely available: radio and phone.

    Instruction and materials are provided in many formats, including radio, WhatsApp, SMS, social media such as YouTube and Facebook, phone calls and recordings. The instructional designers maintained a low level of technology access so that students in rural and remote locations are still able to participate. End users can listen to the content on radios in their home or community, or on a phone. They can also download pre-recorded audio from our website or on podcast platforms such as iTunes.

    Recording equipment and studios and the ability to broadcast via radio are incredibly important to any organization using ROA to deliver remote education services. Below is a breakdown of distribution channels utilized by various ROA partners. Radio is the most common and widely used tool. WhatsApp is the second most commonly used tool, but is used by less than half of partners across the globe.

    Figure 2: Distribution channels used by ROA partners (Source: ROA, 2020).


    SMS technology was introduced to complement the radio-based lessons. The SMS campaign causal chain (Figure 3) indicates how the SMS campaign changes the behaviour of the in-home Rising Radio Champion. A draft SMS was initially scheduled based on evidence from similar projects with the SMS text drafted together with the local staff. A rapid SMS test was then carried by sending multiple messages to each parentwho were required to provide actionable feedback through a phone survey. After that, the SMS texts were modified based on the feedback. SMS messages were sent out twice per week to the target audience. The contacts then read the SMS who then communicate the message to the in-home Rising Radio champion.

    Figure 3: SMS campaign causal chain (Source: RAN, 2020).


     The use of SMS was designed to complement the content delivered by radio. SMS delivery following a specific schedule to remind, reinforce and encourage recipients to motivate their children or learners themselves to learn (Figure 4).  On the first three days of the first week, the preparation phase, a welcome message was sent to learners. Subsequently, reminders of upcoming lessons and learnings tips complemented radio lessons. Moreover, friendly encouragement and positive parenting content were also delivered through the SMS at regular timeframes in later weeks.


    Figure 4: The SMS content map (RAN, 2020)


    ROA’s podcasts and audio lessons are compatible with any standard podcasting app. However, it is recommended that users install the open source AntennaPod app, as it does not require much memory to run and is therefore ideal for low-memory phones. The availability of apps such as AntennaPod allowed ROA to transfer the audio lessons to a podcast form without investing in building the necessary infrastructure.

    Besides using these digital tools for teaching and learning, the programme also utilizes these tools as feedback loops. The practice of feedback loops came into existence at the start of the programme when ROA had groups of children listen to the lessons and provide feedback on their experience. In addition to radio lessons, learners were also provided with contact numbers where listeners could simply call in with questions or send comments via text message. Through these practices, ROA reports that their partner organizations using the lessons in different countries are able to provide feedback and ideas for improvement.

    Programme impact and challenges

    Impact and achievements

    According to the ROA survey results (ROA survey result, 2020), 25 countries spanning three continents are currently using ROA. With 35 partners around the globe, the programme is especially widespread in Africa and Asia. Such a wide reach means that the programme currently serves over 10 million children, making it one of the largest technology-based programmes in these regions.

    Speaking about the importance of the programme, the former Liberian minister of education said that it provided a crucial anchor to the education system when schools were closed during the pandemic. He believes that programmes such as ROA are especially important because the longer schools remain closed, the higher the chances of children not returning.

    Rising on Air allows partners and governments to mobilize quality radio and SMS content quickly, and importantly, in their own voice. I am impressed by the growing community working together on this project.

    —George K. Werner, Former Minister of Education, Liberia

    RAN has been able to produce learning materials with a large reach (20 countries across Africa and Asia) at a minimal cost (USD 0.03 per learner). Funding is provided by philanthropic means, which has allowed RAN to share its materials free of charge.

    RAN has commissioned an external randomized control trial by the Centre for Global Development[13] in order to demonstrate tangible educational outcomes. However, the trial is not complete at this time, nor is the internal data collected by ROA via phone on parent engagement ready for interpretation.

    For more local impact and achievements, data for in-person schooling in Liberia showed that students made more than twice the improvement in reading and mathematics annually, compared to their counterparts in other schools.

    Another singular case is presented by one of the members of ROA’s growing community in Pakistan called Innovate Educate and Inspire (IEI).[14] Marvi Soomro, the founder of IEI, reiterates the uniqueness of the programme in the context of Pakistan: 

    For IEI Pakistan, this programme is a unique opportunity to take learning to students facing the digital divide in this pandemic. We were able to take the first lesson script, translate it and record it in 2 days!

    The team at Rising is very supportive & the connections this partnership is creating are valuable during & post corona.

    — Marvi Soomro, Founder of IEI

    Soomro states that the lesson scripts not only encourage student engagement but are also structured in a way that supports modifications and adaptations required for specific regional contexts.

    Further testimonials about the ROA programme highlight the innovative approach of the programme, not just in its approach to teaching and learning but also its scalability.[15]


    ROA had only a short turnaround time to make the pivot to remote learning. Its prior experience during the Ebola crisis highlighted the need to make participation in remote education available as quickly as possible in order to prevent students from simply abandoning school altogether.

    The challenge was to provide learning opportunities remotely to students who had little or no access to the internet and to written materials such as textbooks and handouts. A curriculum was therefore created to require nothing more than pen, paper, and items such as beans or rocks that can be used for counting.

    In addition, while planning its curriculum and delivery, ROA was aware that many parents are not able to take an active role in their children´s education. Another challenge identified early in the switch to remote learning was how to inform communities about the programme.

    Stakeholders and partnerships

    ROA prides itself on its ability to connect with partner organizations and provide a framework for those organizations to tailor curricula to local needs. ROA has partner organizations that utilize its curricula in 25 countries throughout Africa and Asia, reaching over 10 million children. ROA surveys partner organizations one month after they begin using materials. They provide a collaborative workspace on the software application Slack for partners to exchange information and ideas.

    By utilizing an ‘engaging, highly structured curriculum, intensive teacher coaching and rapid data and feedback loops’, the programme claims to bring cutting-edge quality to every classroom and every student. In terms of scalability, ROA develops and refines the programme through schools owned and operated by ROA, which follow a low-cost USD 1-a-day private school model. On the second level, the programme then involves local governments and other partners to improve the quality of participating schools. All this development takes place at an estimated third of the unit cost of other leading networks.

    Future plans

    ROA points to the high demand for its work as proof of its success, but is also building a body of evidence by creating new evaluations and partnerships to assess its associated programmes. For example, RAN is currently testing the efficacy of ROA’s audio content and teacher professional development materials through an interactive voice-response pilot programme in Sierra Leone and Ghana, supported by EdTech Hub. Similarly, ROA partners in Bangladesh and Pakistan have also been evaluating the efficacy of their interventions.

    RAN has also partnered with McKinsey to provide Arabic, maths and language arts lessons to Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the literacy and numeracy outcomes to be assessed in the coming months.

    Finally, ROA has launched a new tool which is the next evolution of the ROA innovation: Rising on Air Interactive, or ‘Rori’, for short. Rori is a chatbot tutor harnessing AI and engaging audio to deliver personalized learning to any student on any phone.

    Rori has been backed by Schmidt Futures, the Learning Agency, the Jacobs Foundation and MIT Solve. Rori is a chatbot tutor, powered by AI and uses ROA’s unique library of structured curriculum content, including 500 hours of audio content covering language, arts and maths for five different age groups across K-12.  Delivered via SMS or WhatsApp so all students can access it, Rori will be able to pull text and audio clips from this library, personalized to the learning needs of each individual student.

    ROA is building Rori for the 617 million school-age children around the world who finish primary school without having attained basic mastery of literacy and numeracy.


    Amporo, A.T. & Nabbuye, H. 2020. Taking distance learning ‘offline’: Lessons learned from navigating the digital divide during COVID-19. [online] Brookings. Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2020/08/07/taking-distance-learning-offline-lessons-learned-from-navigating-the-digital-divide-during-covid-19/ [Accessed 5 February 2021].

    Ho, J. & Thukral, H. 2009. Tuned in to student success: assessing the impact of interactive radio instruction for the hardest-to-reach. [pdf] Education Development Center. Available at: https://www.edc.org/sites/default/files/uploads/Tuned-Student-Success.pdf [Accessed 5 February 2021].

    Lumeh, L.L. 2019. The Year 2018: A Review of Liberia’s ICT Sector. [online] Liberian Observer. Available at: https://www.liberianobserver.com/news/the-year-2018-a-review-of-liberias-ict-sector/ [Accessed 5 February 2021].

    Mackinnon, A. 2020. Extremism is on the Rise in West Africa. Education is Suffering. [online] Foreign Policy. Available at: https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/29/extremism-rise-west-africa-education-suffering-burkina-faso-human-rights-watch/ [Accessed 5 February 2021].

    Mangesi, K. 2007. ICT in Education in Ghana. [pdf] Info Dev. Available at: https://www.infodev.org/sites/default/files/resource/InfodevDocuments_406.pdf [Accessed 5 February 2021].

    ROA (Rising on Air). 2020. Rising On Air: Survey Results. Rising Academy Network.

    RAN (Rising Academy Network). 2020. Rising on Air. [online] Rising Academy Network. Available at https://www.risingacademies.com/onair#block-b9b94103823c2d898d55 [Accessed 19 November 2020].

    Strauss, V. 2020. 1.5 billion children around globe affected by school closure. What countries are doing to keep kids learning during pandemic. [online] The Washington Post. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/03/26/nearly-14-billion-children-around-globe-are-out-school-heres-what-countries-are-doing-keep-kids-learning-during-pandemic/ [Accessed 19 November 2020].

    UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2020. Uganda Country Refugee Response Plan. [pdf] Kenya, UNHCR. Available at: https://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/Uganda%20Country%20RRP%202019-20%20%28January%202019%29.pdf [Accessed 19 November 2020].

    Wittels, A. & Maybanks, N. 2016. Research Report: Communication in Sierra Leone - an analysis of media and mobile audiences. [pdf] BBC Media Action. Available at: http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/rmhttp/mediaaction/pdf/research/mobile-media-landscape-sierra-leone-report.pdf [Accessed 21 September 2021].

    World Bank. 2007. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: Sierra Leone Country Report. [online] Open Knowledge Repository. Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/10657 [Accessed 5 February 2021].


    [1] Rising on Air: https://www.risingacademies.com/onair#block-b9b94103823c2d898d55.

    [2] Rising Academy Network: https://www.risingacademies.com/.

    [3] Creative Commons is an American non-profit organization and international network devoted to educational access and expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. To find out more, see: https://creativecommons.org/.

    [4] MyAgro is a mobile ‘layaway’ platform that allows farmers to use their mobile phones to purchase seeds and fertilizer in small increments. For more information, visit: https://www.myagro.org/.

    [5] ROA English curriculum web page: https://www.risingacademies.com/on-air-english.

    [6] See more here: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1L5xaCmejY9KHBOpofNs9P6MlgwyiZ1oB/view?usp=sharing.

    [7] See more here: https://drive.google.com/file/d/18yu1YObDm7Is7QpZZYSDnu3rnG8HPOGH/view?usp=sharing.

    [8] See more here: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ciT8GivNAcYunm1ysjrtL7dvmb31FsKv/view?usp=sharing.

    [9] ROA Partner Portal. Please go to: https://www.risingacademies.com/rising-onair.

    [10] Rising Academy: Technical and General Tips – SMS: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5555e7a7e4b01769086660e5 /t/5f062357bd6cfa7c6b83955c/1594237784494/Technical%2BSide%2Band%2BTips%2BSMS.pdf.

    [11] For more information on teacher professional development, visit: https://www.risingacademies.com/on-air-teacher-professional-development.

    [12]For more information ROA Teacher PD: Do Now, visit: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DsL7bnKPCqQWqKrHV1Lq_YCj9-1Mz6q_/view.

    [13] For more information on Centre for Global Development, visit: https://www.cgdev.org/.   

    [14] For more information on IEI, visit: https://ieipakistan.org/.

    [15] Visit here for testimonials: https://www.risingacademies.com/onair.


    Mr George Cowell

    International Director of People and Programmes

    Rising Academy Network

    tel: +44 7501 027057


    For citation please use

    Last update: 15 November 2021. Rising on Air, West Africa. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. (Accessed on: 5 December 2021, 12:43 CET)

    PDF in Arabic

    Related Documents